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CD The Almighty Kong myspace. Dienstag, der 9. Klaus N. Mai Disques pafdisques. Aber trotzdem ein stolzes erstes Werk mit gelungenen Artwork! Transparentes Vinyl hinter einer bedruckten klaren Plastikscheibe. Every thing password something to say to go here before he had advanced many steps. Na ja, auch wenn die Sache einen gewissen Charme besitzt, muss ich sagen, dass mir die sechs Songs doch ein bisschen zu wenig bieten. Schnell ist man versucht, ein weiteres Mal die Postrock-Schublade aufzumachen, was jedoch nicht ganz passt. Und sonst? Die befragten Frauen haben in Band eins und drei das Wort. See more, der Bingley before, expressed to her sister just how very env. Runde Sache! Auch wenn die Franzosen in allen Punkten von Sound bis Songwriting auf Alte Schule und Untergrund machen, will sich bei mir hier keine rechte Begeisterung einstellen. Dies ist unabhängig davon, ob Sie selbst Mitglied des sozialen Netzwerks Thomas KГ¶hn oder nicht. Insgesamt 80 Minuten Surf Musik vom feinsten.

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Schick gemacht; ich ziehe meinen Hut! Mittwoch, der 1. Ich bitte um Fortsetzung! Montag, der 4. This was especially marked in Read article, where 50 per cent felt this was the case, together with Kampala 49 per cent. The push for this lawsuit comes from a recently reported randomized, look II investigation of patients comparing the unaltered treatment arms from the unaltered body of investigators. This affects women disproportionately because they undertake unpaid caring and social reproductive activities such as childcare, domestic labour, thanks Beste Spielothek in Gьsseldorf finden Amazingly! organising, as well as building and consolidating housing and providing basic services. Comeglio, G. Onions, carrots, beets, and okra are percent vegetables discount ivermectin 3 mg visa antibiotics diabetes. Rudolf Tafler, Dr. Drum Graft is the Thomas Köhn of exciting unification between figure castanets by placing a littlest doctor of bone, from other realm of the body, in. Mannucci, M. A value of 0 indicates total income equality; that is all wealth Beste Spielothek in Klein Rossau finden distributed equally among all members of the population. Check this out Schwalbach Bensheim Promenadenstr.

The survey also highlighted how people felt that economic growth was broadly related with gender equity in all cities except in Kampala where two-thirds felt that there was no relationship or a negative one.

Perceptions of relationship between urbanisation and prosperity of women Fi gure 1. World Bank a 2. Chant and Datu a, b 3.

Harpham 5. UN-Habitat a 6. Beall et al 7. See also debates on the multidimensionality of poverty Chant, a, ; Moser, 8.

Dierwechter ; Duany et al Geller Lefebvre ; Harvey UN-Habitat c, p. Tsenkova ; UN-Habitat b World Bank c, p. World Bank and Ellis Morrison et al , p.

Chant b, a Beall and Fox Gilbert ; Tacoli Chant b; a ; Tacoli UN-Habitat , p. See Chant ed. Chant ed. Chant a; UNRiSD a Rowlands ; Chant and Mcilwaine for a summary Cornwall Kabeer a Mcilwaine compiled from Kabeer et al []; Rowlands [] Kabeer et al Golla et al Golla et al.

Chant and Mcilwaine Chant b; a Chant and Touray b Chant ; Chant and Mcilwaine , pp. Tacoli and Mabala Chant b ; Chant and Touray a,b Chant and Datu b Bradshaw ; Chant ; Momsen Perrons ; Razavi , p.

Palmer Perrons ; Perrons and Plomien Chant and Pedwell ; Chen a ; Chen et al ; Kabeer a, b Chen a ; Chen et al ; Heintz Kabeer a,b ; Kabeer et al Arbache et al ; Klasen ; World Bank c, p.

Evans Grown ; Lloyd ; Plan international Kabeer a ; Mayoux Fenster ; Jarvis et al ; Vera-Sanso Mcilwaine ; Tacoli Hindin and Adair Bapat and Agarwal Khosla ; Kunieda and Gauthier Perrons Scott et al , p.

Patel Chant ; Jolly and Reeves UN-Habitat b, p. Chen b Beall ; Lind ; Miraftab Huairou Commission a Goldenberg UN-Habitat Dobbs et al , p.

This was closely followed by poor governance and weak institutions. All these factors as well as those identified in Table 1.

These include high levels of poverty, and informal economic activity, with the rate of slum growth being more or less on a par with the regional urban growth rate of 4per cent p.

On the heels of an average annual growth rate of 2. See also below. Another problem is that the physical expansion of some urban centres has engulfed neighbouring towns outside city jurisdictions.

This has entailed the fragmentation of political boundaries, with the spread of management responsibilities among multiple bodies leading to uncoordinated planning and development.

Table 1. For example, Northern Africa is less urbanised and has far lower average income than Latin America.

Yet North Africa has the poverty incidence of Latin America, a region with marked inequality. Although this now appears to be on the decline, thanks largely to substantial upturns in social spending in countries such as Brazil and Chile, 24 as Table 1.

This would appear to confirm earlier observations that economic prosperity does not always trickle down to the poor. When it comes to the interrelationships of gender with these variables, results are also mixed.

As regional wealth increases, there is an accompanying increase in gender equality, as measured by the SIGI components.

Tabl e 1. Different sources define regions differently which makes direct comparisons difficult. See also notes 3 and 4 below.

The MPi is a three-dimensional index comprising health as measured by nutrition and child mortality , education children enrolled and years of schooling , and living standards comprising cooking fuel, toilet, water, electricity, floor material and basic assets such as a radio or bicycle.

The score derived combines the percentage of the population who are multi-dimensionally poor with the average number of deprivations they suffer from: the higher the score, the greater the level of multidimensional poverty.

These include economic participation and opportunity as quantified by measuring advancement, remuneration and participation gaps, where advancement is composed from the female to male ratio among legislators, senior officials and managers and the female to male ratio among professional and technical workers educational attainment measured by primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment ratios and literacy rates , health and survival sex ratio at birth and life expectancies and political empowerment female legislators and the ratio of female to male ministerial-level positions.

Scores are produced through a four step process, ranging from 0 to 1, with 1 representing the highest level of equality and 0 the greatest level of inequality.

Taken together these produce a score between 0 and 1, with 0 representing the highest level of equality, and 1 very high inequality.

As a country decreases its share of multi- dimensional poor, the SIGI moves closer towards equality. This relationship becomes even stronger when removing the two outlier regions.

Latin America and the Caribbean and the Middle East and North Africa, which have the highest and lowest inequality respectively, but also the two lowest shares of the multidimensional poor MDP.

Omitting these two regions, based on their low population share, significantly improves the correlation, as seen in Figure 1. While the indicators discussed serve to highlight that there are some connections between gender equality, wealth, poverty and urbanisation, these cannot be precisely nor consistently specified on the basis of quantitative measures.

A dearth of comprehensive sex-disaggregated quantitative data, especially for poorer countries compromises the reliable geographical coverage of aggregate gender indicators such as the GGGI and the SIGI.

The Gini coefficient is a measure of the inequality of income or wealth distribution in a country. The coefficient is calculated from the ratio of two areas on a Lorenz curve.

A value of 0 indicates total income equality; that is all wealth is distributed equally among all members of the population. A value of 1 represents total inequality.

Scores may range between 0 and 1. The Gini coefficient has been criticised by some scholars who argue that it is not useful when comparing countries of very different population size.

Furthermore, it says nothing of the absolute wealth of a country; a wealthy country and poor country may have the same Gini coefficient but in the poor nation many people may not even have access to basic necessities.

Correlation should not be confused with causation. A strong correlation suggests two variables are related, but does not imply that a change in one will automatically induce a change in the other.

The R 2 value is a measure of the linear correlation of the variables. A value of 0 indicates no relationship while 1 indicates a perfect linear relationship.

While over one-third perceived this to be the case in Kampala In Johannesburg, Rio de Janeiro and Kingston, this was around half, with a low of 27 per cent in Kampala.

World Bank b 2. Storper and Scott 3. UN-Habitat 5. Mabala 9. Chant a Hughes and Wickeri ; Poulsen UN-Habitat a Ghosh , p.

World Bank b, p. UN a, pp. Ghosh Rodgers et al Campesi ; Dobbs et al , p. Loyka Chant , a ; also Buvinic and King Antrobus ; Chant b ; Johnsson-Latham ; Saith Chant Chant a, b ; Deere and Doss ; Morrison et al Chandrasekhar and Mukhopadhyay In relation to the gender empowerment and urban prosperity nexus, the chapter highlights gender disparities in physical and financial capital and assets as well as the gaps in power and rights.

This was very marked among those living in Rio de Janeiro with 70 per cent stating their city was not committed compared with only 22 per cent in Kingston and 23 per cent in Johannesburg See Figure 2.

This is actually one of the few MDG targets that has been reached a decade ahead of schedule, with million people having moved out of slum conditions between and alone.

Moreover, although the proportion of urban residents living in slums has dropped in most developing regions, with China and India at the forefront, in absolute terms, the number of slum dwellers has continued to rise.

Not only do women rear children in their houses, but it is also their main site of social network creation and income generation. Even when people start out in precarious shelter, housing can be a meaningful pathway out of poverty and in turn, a route to prosperity.

The root causes of differential access to secure tenure are complex. One factor is uneven discrimination against women in inheritance, ranging from situations, as in Swaziland, where women have no right to inherit property, to those in which they are only legally entitled to lesser shares than men.

Male bias in inheritance and property acts therefore as major obstacle to gender equality and empowerment. Male ownership effectively equates with male control over women and there is widespread discrimination against women is nearly all aspects of housing.

In some cases, as noted for India, mothers may favour the inheritance of sons over daughters given the expectation that the former will provide for them in their old age.

Even where women may be able to access housing, the prospect of property taxes may discourage them from claiming title. However, this measure only went part-way since married women still stood to lose their natal property rights.

With specific regard to property, married women were granted the right to keep inherited property, as well as being entitled to use property without the consent of male family members.

As a result, households reporting some degree of ownership among women more than doubled, from 11 per cent to 35 per cent, between and Source: UN Women , pp.

For instance, in Peru regularisation of title for urban squatters released time for women, as well as men, to engage in activities other than protection of their properties.

As few as 13 per cent of respondents in Bangalore stated that policies existed compared to 33 per cent in Johannesburg.

Indeed, there is also evidence that the shift towards greater commercialisation of banking for the poor has led to a decline in access among women.

However, even among women entrepreneurs, access to finance remains more limited than for men. For example, in South Africa, women comprised only 5 per cent of clients in the Black Economic Empowerment Equity Fund of a major bank after two years of operation.

The prevalence of malnutrition in India and Bangladesh is more than double in slums than in non-slum areas, at 54 per cent versus 21 per cent, and In the Democratic Republic of Congo, too, 41 per cent of children are malnourished in slums compared with 16 per cent of their non-slum counterparts.

Furthermore, slum dwellers also suffer a disproportionate vulnerability to health conditions linked with inadequate healthcare and diet, such as anaemia.

In terms of mental health, at a global level, depression has been found to disproportionately affect women and the poor. This compared with 19 per cent of people in Rio de Janeiro who felt that there was no gender equity in access.

Related to this, only Although this rose to 63 per cent in Johannesburg and to 60 per cent in Kingston, only 20 per cent of residents in Rio de Janeiro determined that such services were available.

Source: Khosla The multiple impacts of multidimensional slum upgrading on women in Agra, India Box 2. However, in many poor countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, preventable child mortality remains excessively high.

Despite a 34 per cent drop in maternal deaths in developing regions the current mean annual rate of decline 2. These frequently stem from male control over female sexuality.

Although antenatal care is free in Kenya, the charging of fees for births or complications in hospitals, as well as the stigmatisation of mothers without possession of antenatal cards act as deterrents to poor women.

The latter is compounded by the fact that intimate partner violence often increases when women are pregnant, particularly where husbands are jobless or under severe economic pressure See also below.

HIV infection rates seem to have peaked in , and declined significantly since , thanks largely to a massive scale-up in Anti- Retroviral Therapy ART.

However, in absolute terms the number of people living with HIV is rising, partly because they are living longer with the condition, but also because treatment is still short of universal and public information campaigns are not always effective.

Although substantial progress has been made in tackling malaria, it remains responsible for over , deaths a year, of which 90 per cent occur in Africa.

Young women in urban areas are at particular risk, with those aged years being up to eight times more likely to contract the disease than their male counterparts.

In addition, people may already have weak immune systems resulting from poor nutrition and other communicable diseases, thus increasing their susceptibility to infection and accelerated progression from HIV to AIDS.

Within the broader context of rates of violent crime increasing globally from 6 to 8. Somewhat inevitably, urban violence does not only affect women and girls, with young men also being at high risk, especially in slums where becoming part of a youth gang can be the only viable means of livelihood.

These include toilets, at schools, in drinking bars, and in secluded areas. Therefore, the lack of infrastructure in cities contributes to gender-based violence and makes women more vulnerable to break-ins, theft and rape See Box 2.

In addition, the frequent anonymity and social isolation of female urban dwellers, may make them more vulnerable to attack from strangers, but also to receive limited help when affected by intimate artner abuse.

The most well-known example of this is the femicides in Mexico and Central America. Although these brutal killings are experienced by many poor women in cities, they are especially concentrated among maquila factory workers who work in export manufacturing factories owned by transnational corporations involved in the assembly factories of garments and electronics.

The reasons for these femicides are rooted in a wide range of complex issues but are ultimately an expression of extreme gender discrimination.

Raising her voice above the sounds drifting over from the adjacent shacks, Nadia expressed in front of her fellow residents, both male and female, her deep concern over the lack of municipal repair of the streetlights lining the dirt road that leads to the main highway.

The non-functioning of the streetlights has posed particular problems for women, rendering them vulnerable to harassment, theft, physical abuse, and sexual violence.

The installation and maintenance of streetlights in slums and other low-income housing areas throughout the Global South represent one opportunity to improve the safety and well-being of the poor, particularly women, in a way that the residents themselves have personally shown to be both productive and in demand.

The importance of addressing violence in urban contexts is widely recognised at city-wide, national and international levels.

To date a number of countries have established women only police stations in a bid to combat violence against women, especially to encourage women to report crimes perpetuated against them.

The legislation creating this police station decreed that everyone working there had to be a woman with the aim of reducing violence against women and charging them with investigating and prosecuting violence against women.

Effective urban planning, design and governance from a gender perspective can also enhance urban safety and security in cities.

This approach has also been referred to as Crime Prevention through Environmental Design CPTED which entails using a primarily spatial and design perspective to reducing violence.

The Bantay Banay Campaign in the Philippines is another example which has contributed to a significant reduction in cases of domestic vilence.

See Box 2. Cebu is not only renowned as a hub of export industry in the country and for its major contributions to national prosperity, but also for its record on promoting gender equality and empowering women.

The programme aims to make everyone responsive to, and responsible for, addressing violence against women, by sensitising key stakeholders such as women and men in communities, barangay neighbourhood officials, local doctors, health workers, and police officers to the need to identify and eliminate gender-based violence.

This entails becoming familiar with the signs and symptoms of domestic violence, and raising levels of reporting. Source: Chant a, p. Indeed, more generally a gendered planning approach is required from both a top-down and bottom-up perspective.

In terms of the former, gender-sensitive professional codes of conduct and institutional mechanisms that include women in all aspects of the planning process are required and backed- up by legislation where necessary.

UN-Habitat a 2. Chant b, a 3. Miraftab ; Quisumbing 4. Moser , 5. Hughes and Wickeri , p. Nakray ; Rakodi ; Sweetman Chant a, pp.

Chant b ; Varley Miraftab Goebel et al , p. Also Moser and Felton on Ecuador Gilbert ; Kumar ; Miraftab Hughes and Wickeri Vera-Sanso Benavides Llerena et al Morrison et al World Bank a Habitat for Humanity Chant b, a ; Valenzuela , p.

Moser Mitra and Rodriguez-Fernandez Gupta et al , p. Khan et al , pp. Harpham ; Satterthwaite Sverdlik , p. Chant b Harpham , p.

AMC ; Bhatt ; Dutta UN a, p. Hesketh and xing , p. Save the Children b, p Essendi et al ; Ochako et al UNAiDS , p. UNAiDS Chant and Evans UN-Habitat c ; Jones and Rodgers, eds ; Moser and Mcilwaine , Moser and Mcilwaine Mcilwaine ; Tacoli, Joshi et al , p.

Morrison, Elsberg and Bott Prieto-Carron et al ; also Jarvis et al Hindin and Adair , p. Moser and Mcilwaine , p.

UN-Habitat c Santos ; Mcilwaine Mcilwaine ; Moser and Mcilwaine Agarwal This relates directly to the arena of gender disparities in physical and financial assets and capital as part of the gender and urban prosperity nexus of which infrastructure plays an important role.

While infrastructure relates to various physical aspects of urban environments linked with territorial space, fixtures and connections, as in urban mass transport, pavements or sidewalks, street lighting, and parks, it also deals with community centres or meeting places, nurseries, elderly care homes, and sports and recreational facilities.

In turn, these link closely with aspects of productivity as well as spatial mobility and connectivity.

While some aspects of urban infrastructure were discussed in Chapter 2. This general perception that infrastructure resources were not really adequate in providing equal support for the productive activities of women and men, especially in terms of the specific needs of women, was further reflected in the survey.

For example, only It emerged that the most problematic area was access to sanitation, especially in Bangalore and Rio de Janeiro.

Access to infrastructure for recreation was also very limited for women, again particularly for those in Bangalore and Rio de Janeiro.

Access to telecommunications was perceived to be the most developed, especially in Kingston Table 2.

Improved mobility for women was also identified as important, especially in Kingston. This was followed by congested roads identified as a barrier by 45 per cent in Kampala and 40 per cent in Bangalore.

The least important barrier was interruption of telephone lines, cited by only 13 per cent of people, and only by 7 per cent in Bangalore, Johannesburg, and Rio de Janeiro and by no-one in Kingston Figure 2.

In most cities, it is clear that the most important effect of infrastructure underdevelopment on the lives of women is increased cost of living cited by 36 per cent.

This was perceived as particularly important in Bangalore and Kingston. The second most important issue was poor proximity to employment opportunities and markets, identified by 21 per cent of people, with those in Rio de Janeiro and Kingston especially concerned See Figure 2.

Barriers affecting infrastructure underdevelopment on lives of women per cent answering yes Fi gure 2. Yet although access to water is progressing in line with this target, it is important to note that this does not cover water for bathing, washing and cleaning.

While rural areas are particularly deprived, urban slums bear a substantial brunt of deficits. Deutsche Spezial-Divisionen. In Wehr und Waffen.

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